phoenix program declassified
Another source of intelligence that was often productive, but time consuming to exploit and difficult to process, was the vast store of data collected by Census Grievance teams during 1963-64. Of course, I was clueless about all of the above in July 1969, when, as a Marine infantry officer in command of G Company of the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines in South Vietnam, I first came in contact with the PRU program. When this information was shared with the PRU, which was rare, the results were usually highly successful. They were special paramilitary forces that were originally developed in 1964 by the government of South Vietnam and CIA. Designed to destroy the Vietcong infrastructure and ostensibly run by the South Vietnamese government, the Phoenix Program--in fact directed by the United States--developed a variety of counterinsurgency activities including, at its worst, torture and assassination. In some cases, the Tay Ninh PRU was actually successful in infiltrating the VCI. They are paid well (and regularly) and rewarded for tangible results--a crucial element in preventing corruption and enemy infiltration. Phoenix was the grotesque brainchild of William Colby and may have resulted in the elimination, to use Colby anaseptic phrase, more than 40,000 South Vietnamese civilians, suspected by the CIA of having anti-American sentiments. The project included (But was not limted to) Anabasis aphylla (an alkaloid), scopolamine and mescaline. Doug Valentine has a fascinating insight into various aspects of CIA Black Operations, He has authored multiple books on related subject mater: some of … It was a program that many people feel was wrong to impliment but I feel that it was necessary. Search . This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation Petty jealousies between the Vietnamese National Police, the Vietnamese Special Branch Police, and district chiefs often prevented the transmission of good operational leads to the PRU. Depending on what you provide, we may offer you compensation. The units also possessed PRC-25 radios, 7-by-50 binoculars, medical kits, 4-by-4 Toyota -ton trucks, and Honda motorcycles. "Phoenix program." Publication date 1992 Topics Vietnam War Collection opensource Language English. PHOENIX PROGRAM Subject: PHOENIX PROGRAM Keywords: No Objection to Declassification in Full 2010/05/13: LOC-HAK-331-4-20-7 PHOENIX PROGRAM ? Title: Phoenix Program. © 2002-2020 MegaEssays.com. Thus, the units did not perform well when they and the enemy met by chance or when the enemy was prepared for them. By far, the most prolific source of intelligence for the PRU was the PRU's own intelligence system. Though reading did not help me through my interview, the knowledge would help me in the months to follow in Tay Ninh. He said I should continue to serve as a company commander until III Marine Amphibious Force (MAF) headquarters in Da Nang told me I had been invited to travel to Saigon for an interview. PHOENIX PROGRAM?? Employment: We do not routinely answer questions about employment beyond the information on this Web site, and we do not routinely answer inquiries about the status of job applications. In 1972 CORDS reported that since the 1968 Tet Offensive, Phoenix had removed over 5,000 VCI from action, and that conventional military actions and desertions--some prompted by Phoenix--accounted for over 20,000 more. From 1965 to 1972, Phoenix was involved in the kidnapping, torture, and murder of thousands upon thousands of … Phoenix Program (Counterinsurgency program : Vietnam) Sources. I stood in the sweltering heat for a few minutes, becoming the subject of the the curiosity of several Vietnamese irregular soldiers from the US Special Forces Camp B-32, who stared at me from behind their barbed wire encampment. CIA-veteran Robert H. Komer initially headed CORDS, but it was most active and successful under William E. Colby, who replaced Komer in 1968. to us and to those with more detail. In this paper I will show evidence of how the Phoenix Program worked, it's infrastructure, and the death of the Phoenix Program. The captain then began a nearly two-hour long interview. He told me to read it that night and be prepared to discuss it in detail the following morning at 0800.3 I then was driven back to the Duc Hotel where I immediately began reading. They are subject to effective judicial and political oversight and not free to conduct unauthorized missions, without orders from a competent legal authority. Those on a list were arrested or captured for interrogation, or if they resisted, they were killed. Photo courtesy of the author. Using the Tor browser, a virtual private network, and/or a device not registered to you can reduce some risk. After successful attempts to bury this book, e.g. Shelves: unreadable. Some Declassified Mind Control Programs Project CHATTER instigated by the US Navy late in 1947. From September 1969 to June 1970, the Tay Ninh PRU killed 31 VCI and captured 64--at a cost of only two PRU members killed and two wounded. When Executive Order 12951 declassified the CORONA satellite program on February 22, 1995, the amount of available information increased from scant mention via press releases to thousands of pages and actual imagery. Advanced search... We hereby acknowledge the permissions granted by the Gale Group to include in this Database the abstracts provided in the Declassified Documents Reference System CD-ROM and by the Texas Tech University's Virtual Vietnam Archive to provide the links for fulltext documents. THE PHOENIX PROGRAM by Douglas Valentine. CIA History Staff file photo. MegaEssays. In late 1967, the prime minister of South Vietnam decreed that all of his government's anti-VCI activities be integrated into a program he dubbed Phung Hoang, after a mythical bird endowed with extraordinary powers. In practice, however, few operational leads were shared with the PRU for a host of reasons. In late August 1969, the invitation came, and I was ordered to Saigon to report to MACV's Marine Liaison Office for instructions. Phoenix was a program headed by the CIA, in conjunction with US Special Forces and Australian and South Vietnamese commandos, during the Vietnam War. comment . We wouldn’t know how the world would be if there were only beauty and goodness because we have never […] More. The colonel told me forcefully that whatever I might think about working for a classified program like Phoenix, I was to conduct myself with the utmost discretion and do nothing that would violate the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Phoenix was one of several pacification and rural security programs that CIA ran in South Vietnam during the 1960s. SUBJECT: Assessment of the PHOENIX Program A. He spent a lot of time trying to ascertain my true feelings for the Vietnamese people and how I thought my military experience as a long-range patrol leader and infantry company commander would benefit the PRU program. your local law enforcement or FBI Field Discover the CIA history, mission, vision and values. Continue reading. The Phoenix Program, designed to destroy the “civilian infrastructure” of the National Liberation Front, would be one of its major operations. On arrival I met the US team in Tay Ninh, led by the the provincial officer in charge (POIC)--the senior CIA officer in the province who was, in effect, my day-to-day supervisor. My orders included a provision that I take an Air America flight from Da Nang, something few Marines ever did. Purpose: truth drugs The project attempted to identify agents useful during interrogation. Our response will occur via a secure method. By that I mean the operational direction and authority for any PRU came from the Vietnamese province chief, who was the only official who could sign an arrest order or operational order for the PRU. They are organized into small, tightly knit teams whose ranks are filled by members of the communities they serve. One was the senior PRU adviser in South Vietnam, a Marine Corps colonel; the other was his deputy, also a Marine Corps officer. Date of … For threats outside the U.S., contact Reviews There are no reviews yet. Initially, CIA, with Vietnamese assistance, handled interrogations at the provincial or district levels. When the Project Stargate documents were declassified, it was revealed that Geller had been involved with the CIA in the 1970s as part of the SRI program. A Lt. The scale of the numbers murdered and eliminated as part of the Phoenix Programm are really shocking and show what a nasty and ruthless war the US, including the CIA and South Vietnamese Police and Intelligence Agencies conducted to try and root out and destroy the Vietcong in South Vietnam. 57.0k votes, 12.3k comments. see review. The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Initially, they were known as Counter-Terror Teams. Phoenix OS 3.6.1 is available to all software users as a free download for Windows 10 PCs but also without a hitch on Windows 7 and Windows 8. Thus CORDS, while working on village defense and civic action programs--the latter included land reform, infrastructure building, and economic development--also devoted considerable resources to rooting out the VCI. plus-circle Add Review. As early as December 1968, it was apparent to the Tay Ninh PRU that most of the senior VCI cadre had been either killed or captured in the months after Tet or had been driven into neighboring Cambodia. I obtained the information about the status of the VCI in Tay Ninh Province after I left Vietnam from an interview with two former Tay Ninh PRU members who resettled in the United States in 1985. As a program constructed to fight the Viet Cong, the CIA used an innovative approach which will be analyzed through a different perspective. National-level intelligence sources were accurate but often did not pertain to VCI activities, so they were of little value to the PRU in rooting out the VCI in the province. phoenix program ( declassified release) Posted by Non- Traditional security expert at 5:41 PM. People from nearly every country share information with CIA, and new individuals contact us You can find people who help each other, smile at each other, inspire each other, and most importantly, they do this without expecting something in return. They are equipped and trained to a high level of professionalism. I admired this officer and respected his judgment, so I accepted his offer with literally no knowledge of what I was signing up for. Its teams operated in areas in which the North Vietnamese Army's 5th, 7th, and 9th Divisions operated. He also stipulated that no American was to accompany PRU teams on operations in the field. The NVA commander occupying Tay Ninh Province would put in a hurried request to North Vietnam for 200 civilian political cadre. William Colby pictured on a poster attacking the Phoenix program. When you return permanently to the US (not on vacation or leave), please visit the, To verify an employee's employment, please contact the, Biographic details, such as a photograph of yourself, and a copy of the biographic page Phoenix was misunderstood because it was classified, and the information obtained by the press and others was often anecdotal, unsubstantiated, or false. Critics of US involvement in Vietnam claimed that the PRUs were nothing more than assassination teams, yet only 14 percent of the VCI killed under Phoenix were killed by PRUs. While my experience in Tay Ninh does not necessarily represent the experience of other PRU advisers and their units, I can say confidently that the Tay Ninh PRU was successful during my tour. I finished Viet Cong at 0200. Many served long terms in reeducation camps, where they were tortured and made to work under inhumane conditions. Had these maps been digitized and the information contained in a readily accessible database, the time taken to absorb their information probably would have been greatly reduced and many more operational leads developed. Soon, I was introduced to a man dressed in civilian clothes, who told me he was a captain in the US Army, but he did not tell me his name. By 1967, the US Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), had succeeded in consolidating all military and civilian pacification efforts into one entity, called Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support (CORDS). The Phoenix Program is a grim history of one of the darkest episodes of the Vietnam War, the CIA's civilian torture and assassination program called Phoenix. Their interviews led to the development of maps of the province's districts and villages that were color-coded to illustrate degrees of loyalty to the South Vietnamese government. They also had discipline, strong leadership, and an intense personal motivation to defeat the VC. The CIA has finally complied with the spirit of an executive order signed over two decades ago and made their archive of declassified 25+ year old documents available to the public. The PRU was armed with M16 rifles, M60 machine guns, 45-caliber automatic pistols, and M79 grenade launchers; however, individuals also had a variety of other weapons they had acquired from disparate sources. The new policy devastated the morale and effectiveness of the men in Tay Ninh. Phoenix Program (Counterinsurgency program : Vietnam) Sources. If you feel it is safe, consider providing these details with your submission: We cannot guarantee a response to every message. Thus, as the US PRU adviser in Tay Ninh, I could coordinate with Vietnamese and American military units and plan operations, but I could not authorize them. These people were the tax collectors, and the recruitors. As a credible political threat, the VC had ceased to function in any meaningful way by the time I left Vietnam in June 1970.4. By postal mail: Central Intelligence Agency Office of Public Affairs Washington, D.C. 20505, Contact the Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties, Contact the Employment Verification Office. After November 1969, it took several months and many hours of training before the Tay Ninh PRU members were again willing to venture into contested areas. I would come to regard him as a model leader, one who bore none of the characteristic corrupt qualities that were ascribed to many South Vietnamese provincial figures. Hoi Chanhs were usually far more reliable than other prisoners, although many VC guerrillas and North Vietnam Army (NVA) soldiers also provided useful information on VCI targets. However, with limited staff and resources, we simply cannot respond to all who write to us. The Phoenix Program was first published twenty four years ago, fourteen years after the Congressional investigations that exposed and swiftly washed it from public memory. The CIA described it as "a set of programs that sought to attack and destroy the political infrastructure of the Viet Cong". The commander of the city team also served as the Tay Ninh PRU's deputy commander. 4. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. They were part of the fabric of the provincial society, and their families engaged in all kinds of commerce throughout the province. The program was designed to identify and destroy the Viet Cong (VC) via infiltration, torture, capture, counter-terrorism, interrogation, and assassination. These Hoi Chanhs (returnees) were screened after they surrendered to the South Vietnamese government and then interrogated at the PIC, where they often volunteered to guide PRU teams into highly contested areas to capture VCI. The creation of the Phoenix Program came as a result of a decade-long negligence on the part of the United States to track the activities of the Communist Party's political and administrative structure. Various US Government produced primary sources regarding the CIA managed Phoenix Program during the Vietnam War. 6 documents contain the indexing term PHOENIX PROGRAM: ID Document; 01051: CIA programs to induce desertions and defections in South Vietnam Memorandum; NOT GIVEN; SANITIZED Declassified: November 25, 1996 : 00050: Intelligence failures in Vietnam : suggestions for reform (January 24, 1969) Memorandum; NOT GIVEN; SANITIZED : 00828: Interior Minister Khiem's claim that Prime Minister … Phoenix was a program headed by the CIA, in conjunction with US Special Forces and Australian and South Vietnamese commandos, during the Vietnam War. After reading this book you will never view America and CIA in the same way again.Truly shocking.Recommended for those interested in the politics and military conduct of the American experience in Vietnam. Vietnamese National Police agent reports were equally worthless to the Tay Ninh PRU, and in some cases, dangerously inaccurate. Douglas Pike, Viet Cong: The Organization and Technique of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966). The following are pertinent excerpts from William Colby's nomination testimony July 2, 1973 on the Phoenix Program:-- The Phoenix program was developed in order to bring some order into the fight between the subversion of the North Vietnamese and the Vietcong, and the Government. Shelves: unreadable. Yes there is declassified written information, and oral accounts but there is still much information that has been either destroyed, or people who have been directly told not to say a word about the events that happened during the time period of the Phoenix Program. On reaching me, the driver, a Filipino named Bernie, said he would take me to my new "home," a small villa next to the MACV compound in the city. The program was controversial because the antiwar movement and critical scholars in the United States and elsewhere portrayed it as an unlawful and immoral assassination program targeting civilians. The headquarters of the Tay Ninh PRU, which was collocated with the Tay Ninh City team, consisted of just two individuals, the commander and his operations officer. Komer settled on massive intel program on VC who could be neutralized by SVN forces. 1. Could special police units drawn from local communities to identify and apprehend insurgents be successful and be so in keeping with the fundamental democratic principles we espouse? The South Vietnamese had a resounding lack of interest and investment in this part of the conflict. Your diverse skills. This knowledge of the province led to a great ability to develop accurate intelligence on the VCI and to plan methodically. The Vietnam Conflict was meant to be a conventional conflict but in times of need you must become unconvetional and become primative, and strike at the source of the enemy, not the Viet Cong or the North Vietnam Army but the people who supported them the Viet Cong Infrastructure. That is, the teams did not maneuver well under fire, and they were not proficient in calling for and adjusting supporting arms, generally artillery fire. Search. US military district advisers could channel operational leads to district PRU units for exploitation. The lists were sent to various Phoenix field forces, which included the Vietnamese national police, US Navy Seal teams and US Army special operations groups, and Provincial Reconnaissance Units such as the one in Tay Ninh. I was not privy to the rationale of Abrams or his staff in formulating these restrictions, but I can say that during my assignment in Tay Ninh, I never witnessed and never even heard of a single operational act by either an American or a Vietnamese PRU member that violated the code. MegaEssays.com. (1969, December 31). This storehouse of data was kept at the CIA villa in Tay Ninh City and reviewed periodically by the US adviser for operational leads. Its purpose was simple: assassination. 2. We read every letter, fax, or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate. They had an accurate and highly effective intelligence system that was difficult for the enemy to infiltrate or defeat because it was based on strong family loyalties and religious and civic affiliations. In addition, these maps would often contain the names of family members who were VCI members or sympathetic to the communists. And, as lightly armed units, the PRU teams needed rapid US fire support if they engaged with NVA or VC main force units. Eventually numbering over 4,000 and operating in all of South Vietnam's 44 provinces, the PRUs were commanded by US military officers and senior NCOs until November 1969, after which they were transitioned to CIA advisers. Inside, I was escorted to an office on the second floor and told to wait. Configuration conseillée. Through family contacts, PRU members developed an extensive intelligence system that successfully gathered accurate information on the VCI at the hamlet and village level to map VCI activities. What the CIA did in the Vietnam War Most PRU members were highly experienced combat veterans, who had survived many years in elite combat units before coming to the PRU, but a few had received only rudimentary field training or had served in noncombat units. The Phoenix Program was one of our nation's dirty secrets that still has not been fully uncovered. Vietnam, Phoenix Program, beginning circa 66-67 CORDS pacification program. Most, however, were executed or died in squalid camps. The Phoenix Program was one of our nation's dirty secrets that still has not been fully uncovered. Or, you can send us a message using the Tor browser at ciadotgov4sjwlzihbbgxnqg3xiyrg7so2r2o3lt5wz5ypk4sxyjstad.onion. Had interrogation centers in each of SVNs 235 districts and 44 provinces, card files and computerized indexes. Many Americans believe that this was wrong killing civilians and that it was against the Geneva Conventions but it was a necessary operation. In 1967 the CIA's Far East Division of Clandestine Services developed a program that came to be known as Phoenix. Our open-source library houses the thousands of documents, periodicals, maps and reports released to the public. And so began my 10-month tour of duty with the Tay Ninh PRU. Phoenix was the grotesque brainchild of William Colby and may have resulted in the elimination, to use Colby anaseptic phrase, more than 40,000 South Vietnamese civilians, suspected by the CIA of having anti-American sentiments. To conduct any operation by the Tay Ninh PRU against a VCI target, I had to submit a written request for a signed authorization from the province chief. I immediately recognized this officer as a fellow Marine who had graduated a year ahead of me from the US Naval Academy and who had served with me in 1967 with the 1st Force Reconnaissance Company near Da Nang. I tried to small-talk the officer, but he remained silent or cut me off with a curt, "You will see soon.". At the national level, training took place from time to time at a camp near Vung Tau on the shore of the South China Sea; but at the local level, US commanders and advisers led training when operational lulls permitted. The PRU relied heavily on the Americans who accompanied them on dangerous missions to provide radio contact with US supporting units, especially medevac helicopters and artillery units. This intimate knowledge of the VCI led to many highly accurate operational leads and the elimination of several important VCI cadres during my tour there. Surprisingly, we did not talk about Pike's book, which was an eye-opener to me. Nov 30, 2018 Pamela rated it did not like it. The Phoenix Program Was a Disaster in Vietnam and Would Be in Afghanistan--And the NYT Should Know that News Abroad . Designed to destroy the Vietcong infrastructure and ostensibly run by the South Vietnamese government, the Phoenix Program--in fact directed by the United States--developed a variety of counterinsurgency activities including, at its worst, torture and assassination. 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